Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Does MNLF headed by Nur Misuari has a right of title over areas of Mindanao. Moro National Liberation Front or MNLF be it under Misuari or other leader has no right over any part of Mindanao legally speaking. Muslim Mindanao had always been undisputed in any head on battle or war in history. From their pre-colonial autonomy up to the present incessant rebellion against the national government, they are always marked by triumph and non-withering spirit. They tactfully and secretly wished for independence but not to the extent of jeopardizing the nation. However, the Jabidah Massacre slapped the abhorrent and painful issues kept inside the hearts and minds of our Muslim brethren. Deep inside, they are rebelling for being discriminated, marginalized, and forsaken. Then Nur Misuari or Chairman Nur united them under Moro National Liberation Front in the aim of getting the national government to listen and listen intently. After a widespread bloodshed, both sides took a halt and decided to bring the issues squarely on one table. We will write a custom essay sample on Modern Political Issues in the Philippines or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was one of the longest talks literally because it was done first in Malaysia, then in Turkey, and finally in Libya. Hence, the Tripoli Agreement. The Tripoli Agreement was basically a mutually agreed YesÃ¢â¬â¢ and NoÃ¢â¬â¢s of both parties. It ordered for a detailed autonomous act to be legislated by the Congress. When it was signed in Manila, the war was officially over. As the national governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s dedication to peace and accountability, the Congress did enact RA 6734 (An Act Providing for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao) and RA 9054 (An Act to Strengthen and Expand the Organic Act for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao) as an amendment to the latter. ARMM then became a fully and legally functioning regional government. All was well except for the fact that there had been another uprising from a splinter group of MNLF which is the more aggressive Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). They wanted more so they said, but Chairman Nur argued that MILF is but another intrusion from the imperial police government of Malaysia. Whatever and whoever is behind this movement, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t change the fact that it claimed more lives and hindered progress especially in the island of Mindanao. So the national government faced another toll and after years of fighting, they are back around that table again. This time, in Malaysia and this time, without MNLF. Now that the Framework Agreement is nearing completion, MNLF felt betrayed and legally violated by this peace process. They waged another war even though the government talked with them again and this time the venue is Indonesia. I believe that MNLF has no legal right over any part of Mindanao. There had been no clause or section in the Organic Act for ARMM mentioning that. However, it could be deduced that the government committed a fatal error befriending MILF and alienating the other. This could be another history repetition. Who knows what arm uprising would be organized again and under what name. Peace in this island will never be achieved if the national government does not change its perspective. Muslims here in Mindanao have different ethnicities and clans. They are united by one thing, their faith, but they are divided by hundred other issues. Never alienate anyone. Finally, this may sound a little over the top, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s high time we confront the issue of foreign intervention in our national affairs. It would be very comical having to find out that we are actually settling our brotherly disputes in a bullyÃ¢â¬â¢s yard. 2. Does Philippines have rightful ownership over Sabah? Cite legal and Historical Basis. Philippines is the rightful owner of North Borneo. Historical Perspective: North Borneo was originally owned by the sultan of Brunei. In 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s, there was rebellion in the country and the Sultan of Sulu helped him by sending his soldiers. As token of gratitude and as a tradition, he gave a chunk of his property to the Sultan of Sulu. This was divided into two and the other chunk was given to another sultan who sold it to a Dutch businessman and is presently owned by Indonesia. The remaining lot is the one we call Sabah under the Malaysian government. This was leased or Ã¢â¬Å"padyakÃ¢â¬ to a British businessman who established British North Borneo Company in 1878. Right after the country was declared independent after Japanese colonization, the United Kingdom claimed Sabah as part of the Crown colony from being a Protectorate. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, during the presidency of Pres. Diosdado Macapagal, the sultan of Sulu transferred the sovereignty of North Borneo to the National Government fearing that United Kingdom will hand over the Sabah right to the newly independent nation of Malaysia. The rest is history as they say although it is surely clear that Philippines owns Sabah or North Borneo so to speak. Legal Basis: There is a little doubt for me on our ownershipÃ¢â¬â¢s legality. If we are going to cite the historical evidence of our ownership, there would be no question at all. It had been talked about over the news after the Lahad Datu standoff and was reported that after Pres. Diosdado Macapagal fought our right over Sabah, the claim went status quo. However, there is another side of the story missing. United Kingdom made a move over this dispute; they went to ask residents of Sabah to decide whether to be part of Malaysia or the Philippines. The result was a little inaccurate and that was the time when the United Nations stepped in. UN and ICJ have this modern approach in settling territorial disputes. Historical basis are not given so much weight because almost every side will provide authentic document supporting their claim: Philippines giving documents saying that we only leased it and Malaysia saying that padyak means selling and the payment made even until today is just a part of what had been agreed during the negotiations that the heirs will be given royalty fee or that sort. In the spirit of democracy and/or majority rule, another plebiscite was held and the locals decided to embrace Malaysian government. This was the reason why we did not include Sabah in our territory even when we transitioned to the 1987 Constitution. The Sultanate of Sulu is firm on their stand that Sabah should be given back to us. They said that the Lahad Datu incident was a mere protest on the Malaysian government abuse to the locals of Sabah who originated from Southern Philippines. This time they are sure that we will win given another plebiscite. However, Malaysia is not compromising and is not willing for another talk. Who would want to if what is at risk is a parcel of land contributing 23 percent of your GNP. As for me, the alarming thing brought about by this dilemma is how the Philippine government is addressing it. The administration is showing its teeth to the sultanate just to tell the international community that we can handle our national issues and that we have this internal stability. Ã¢â¬Å"Palagi na lang tayong tuta ng ibang bansa; kailan pa tayo magigising aso? Ã¢â¬ (Princess Jaycel Kiram). 3. Why UN through US interested in nuclear weapons of North Korea? The United Nation will always knock on any nationÃ¢â¬â¢s door to make sure that the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is adhered to. This has been in effect since 1970 and signed by 190 countries except for India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Sudan. North Korea acceded to NPT although it was reported that it never complied to it. This stubborn communist country has taken an on-and-off pledge for the nuclear disarmament. However, there had been serious report that they are trying to miniaturize nuclear bombs to fit into a missile and to change their use of plutonium to the untested and feared uranium. These bold moves are causing unrest to its neighboring countries especially South Korea and the whole world in general. One missile launch would create a massive havoc and devastation that would render most of the countries defenseless (not unless your country is a closet nuclear developer). That would be reason enough for the whole global community to fret and be aggressive.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Giotto Di Bondone and Pablo Picasso Paper Giotto and Picasso Giotto di Bondone and Pablo Picasso, two of the greatest artists in history, greatly influenced todayÃ¢â¬â¢s art and its techniques. Both of them broke the boundaries applied to their time and expressed space in ways that had never been seen before. Nonetheless, there exist differences between the two. For instance, their artistic styles and stages differed. While Giotto painted in the Gothic period and in the style of frescoe, Picasso, being a painter of the twentieth century, had many styles and stages broken down into periods to his works. His most famous period, also known as the most radical art of the twentieth century, has been Cubism. Furthermore, Giotto dealt largely in traditional religious subjects, something which Picasso did not. Giotto was also the first to apply expression to faces, making each person an individual; show detailed clothing and fill in his background with trees and mountains. Their way of breaking boundaries also differed. Giotto broke free from the old stylistic conventions that had dominated European art for more than a thousand years. Picasso, on the other hand, opened up a centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of exploration on the meaning of art through his angry masterpiece Les Demoiselles dÃ¢â¬â¢Avignon and his conclusion to the concept of Cubism. Yet another difference between the two would be their use of space. In his Madonna enthroned, Giotto opened up space in front and behind the Madonna, creating a window that allowed the viewer to see into an illusionistic space on the two- dimensional panel; while Picasso began to express space in strongly geometrical terms, creating an almost sculptural sense of space in the late 1906 during the beginnings of Cubism. We will write a custom essay sample on Giotto Di Bondone and Pablo Picasso specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Giotto Di Bondone and Pablo Picasso specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Giotto Di Bondone and Pablo Picasso specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Both being such great influences on art, it would be hard to decide who the better artist had been and, although Giotto may be recognized as the first genius of art in the early Italian Renaissance, Picasso is considered to be one of the greatest artists of the twentieth century. Giotto was a painter of the Gothic period, which was from approximately 1200-1300, and painted in the style of frescoe. 1 Although he lacked the knowledge of perspective and anatomy, which was common amongst other artists of his day, Giotto was the first to have a grasp of human emotion and of the significance that human life holds. He was also the first to present detailed clothing and a filled-in background along with showing people in his paintings as individuals, each portraying some sort of expression or emotion on their face. In his Lamentation of the dead Christ or Ã¢â¬ËPietaÃ¢â¬â¢, Giotto showed each face in the painting as a different person with expression or emotion on the faces and filled in the background with trees and mountains. He broke free from the old stylistic conventions that dominated European art in his painting of the Madonna Enthroned. Here, he opened up space in front and behind the Madonna, creating a window that allowed the viewer to see into an illusionistic space on the two-dimensional panel, giving the panel a sense close to tri-dimensionality. 3 Giotto also introduced a naturalistic style of painting. 4 In his Madonna and Child, Giotto showed baby fat, baby hands doing baby things (instead of blessing people) and details on the MadonnaÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing. In his Kiss of Judas, one can see individual hairs and JudasÃ¢â¬â¢ lips puckering for the kiss. His works dealt largely on traditional religious subjects, such as the Madonna or Judas, but he gave them an earthly and full-bloodied life and force. 5 Although his style began to die down, it was later revived in the 1400s by Masaccio. Pablo Picasso began to draw at an early age and, unlike Giotto, had many stages and styles to his paintings. He had a Ã¢â¬Å"Blue PeriodÃ¢â¬ , a Ã¢â¬Å"Rose PeriodÃ¢â¬ and an Ã¢â¬Å"AbstractÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Cubist PeriodÃ¢â¬ ; the latest of the three being his most famous period. 6 PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Blue PeriodÃ¢â¬ was during his late teens, around 1901 to 1904, and the works he produced were quite sentimental. Shortly after moving to Paris from Barcelona, he began creating works suffused in blue pigment, giving them a somber tone. This was triggered by the suicide of his childhood friend, the Spanish poet Casagemas, along with his own poor living conditions during that time. 7 The most poignant of his works in this style would probably be that of La Vie, which started off as a self portrait but then looked a lot like and had the features of Casagemas, and is located now in ClevelandÃ¢â¬â¢s Museum of Art. 8 In 1905-1906, he began to lighten his palette and thus created a beige or Ã¢â¬Å"roseÃ¢â¬ tone; this began his Ã¢â¬Å"Rose Period. Here, his subject matters were a lot less depressing than that of his Ã¢â¬Å"Blue Period. Ã¢â¬ 9 One of his works from this period is located in Washington D. CÃ¢â¬â¢s National Gallery; the large and extremely beautiful Family of Saltimbanques (circus people) dating to 1905. Set in a one-dimensional space, it shows a group of circus workers who appea r alienated and unable to communicate with each other. 10 In the late 1906, Picasso began to express space in strongly geometrical terms. This was inspired by CezanneÃ¢â¬â¢s flattened depiction of space. These efforts of developing an almost sculptural sense of space are the beginnings of Ã¢â¬Å"Cubism. Ã¢â¬ 11 The profound effects that Cezanne had on Picasso resulted in his creation of the angry masterpiece Les Demoiselles dÃ¢â¬â¢Avignon, now held in New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s Museum of Modern Art. 12 This masterpiece was not shown to the public until 1916, long after he had completed his early Ã¢â¬Å"CubistÃ¢â¬ pictures. His previous works had not yet prepared the populance for the explosion of this creation which greatly impacted later Modernism. 13 Cubism itself had two stages to it. The initial stage was Ã¢â¬Å"Analytical Cubism,Ã¢â¬ where objects were deconstructed into their original components, and the second stage, which was also its conclusion, was Ã¢â¬Å"Synthetic Cubism. Ã¢â¬ The aim of Ã¢â¬Å"Analytical CubismÃ¢â¬ was to produce conceptual images of objects instead of perceptual ones and, at its height, reached levels of expression that threatened to be incomprehensible to the viewer. 14 One of his works from this period would be that of his Girl with a Mandolin, considered to be a valuable document of the period because Picasso saw the work as unfinished and this gives an insight into his aesthetic intentions and his technical procedure. Picasso took the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"CubismÃ¢â¬ to its logical conclusion in Ã¢â¬Å"Synthetic Cubism. Ã¢â¬ He did so by pasting a piece of oilcloth to the canvas, a key watershed in Modern art, which provided a sort of sophisticated double take on the part of the observer, and through this he opened up a centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of exploration in the meaning of art. 15 A good example of this Ã¢â¬ËdubbedÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Synthetic CubismÃ¢â¬ can be found in the Picasso Museum in Paris. The witty work is entitled Geometric Composition: The Guitar and was created in 1913. This, alongside other things, made Ã¢â¬Å"CubismÃ¢â¬ the most radical of all the arts of the twentieth century. After World War I, Picasso reverted to a Classicist mode of representation to reflect societyÃ¢â¬â¢s disillusionment and shock with the technological horrors of the war but still continued to push Ã¢â¬Å"CubismÃ¢â¬ into new paths. In January, 1937, Picasso was asked to paint a mural for the Spanish pavilion at the world exposition in Paris by the Republican government. 16 Spurred on by the atrocities of the war, the horrors men can wreak upon fellow men and the total destruction of the town of Guernica in he Basque country by bombs, he painted the oil of Guernica in monochrome. This renowned oil, first located in Ney YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s Museum of Modern Art until the death of Franco, can now be found in MadridÃ¢â¬â¢s Museo Nacional Centro de arte Reina Sofia. 17 Giotto was one of the first artists of the proto-renaissance period in Italy and his emergence actually signa led the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy. His style of painting broke so radically from the shackles of medieval restraint, that influences on his style are still being debated today. It would be nearly impossible to imagine art without Giotto for he was such a sensation in his time that he was mentioned in PetrarchÃ¢â¬â¢s writings and in DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Divine Comedy, where he was said to have surpassed his master. Sometimes called the Ã¢â¬Å"father of western pictoral artÃ¢â¬ , his painting turned from the flatter and more iconic byzantine style to having a more naturalistic approach. He was a firm proponent of using the observation of nature to learn about art and his painting emphasized some major characteristics of modern representational art, sculptural solidity, weight/mass of figures and dimensionality. Because of his naturalistic way of painting, modern artists often seek inspiration from Giotto because, in him, they find a direct approach to human experience that remains valid for all ages. Overall, the reason for GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s being regarded as the founder of the central tradition of Western painting would be because his work broke free from the stylizations of Byzantine art, introducing new ideals of naturalism and creating a convincing sense of pictoral space. In about 1400, Cennino Cennini wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Giotto translated the art of painting from Greek to Latin. Ã¢â¬ 18 Pablo Picasso was the most influential artist of his century. Influences of his work can be seen in the artwork of great artists such as Salavadore Dali, Juan GrisÃ¢â¬â¢ and Wassily Kandinski amongst others. Yet, like all other great artists including Giotto, his work influenced more than just artists and represented more than just art. He contributed to the political and social climate of his time. It is safe to say that, unlike Giotto, his uplifting work offered hope through two world wars and a civil war in his homeland Spain inspiring millions of people at a time when the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s future was in doubt. Not that GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s work did not offer hope but that it was neither at such a hard time nor during a war. Another aspect in which he differed from Giotto would be in that of his productivity. Picasso was not only influential but also probably the most productive artist in history. He created over 50,000 works in his lifetime, although not all of them were paintings. A genius of art whose works include 347 untitled engravings, stage sets, illustrations of classical texts, sculptures, ceramics, lithography, a play and two collections of poetry, he truly lives up to his given title of Ã¢â¬Ëthe greatest artist of the twentieth century. It is easy to see what a creative individual Picasso had been. Just one look at the live he lived assures that he was a genius and perhaps even that he was the most renowned artist of all time. 19 Although one might think that Giotto is ultimately the better artist because he was the first to make a drastic change and the first to majorly influence others that could not be confirmed nor stated with complete assurance because the depth of his and PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s influences does not really have a way of being measured. Since Picasso, too, greatly influenced people after and during his own time, Giotto cannot be credited for being the most influential. Yet, although Picasso did create countless works and masterpieces that are acknowledged even to this day while knowledge of GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s work is limited, Picasso cannot be given the title of the better artist because quantity does not represent quality and although Picasso had a lot of both that does not necessarily mean that Giotto was lacking in either of these aspects. Therefore, it would be safer to assume that they both had great and immeasurable impacts and influences on those around them or their work. Even though Giotto and Picasso did differ greatly, whether it was in their styles, stages, subjects, times, ways of expression or ways of breaking boundaries along with other things like influences; it is important to keep in mind that they both had an overall drastic effect on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s art and that, without either of them, art as it is known would just not be the same. Whether it would be better or worse can be kept in doubt because it proves to be something almost impossible to confirm. Either way, both artists contributed in the making of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s art and various art styles and periods prior to this time. Both of them have been kept alive all throughout history and that must be so for a reason. So, even if to some art is pretty much meaningless and not of interest, artists prove to be very important people to history not only in the art category but also in other categories such as politics which, by most, are considered a majorly important part of history. Actually, Picasso would be a great example for this because, during the time in which he lived, he did contribute to the political and social climate of his time. Giotto probably did not do anything like that but that does not kick him any lower on the scale of importance. Ultimately, Giotto, who is recognized as the first art genius in the early Italian Renaissance, and Picasso, who is known as one of the greatest artists of the twentieth century and probably the most renowned artist of all time, are both majorly important figures in history whose greatness can be compared to not only each other but also to many other great artists before and after their times whose accomplishments have also been recorded in history. Some of which might have even proved to be of inspiration to them throughout their lives and some of which might have been inspired by them after their lives. Either way both are like roots to a plant, each a different part but connected somehow to the main object or in this case idea, and are located so deeply in Ã¢â¬Ëthe dirtÃ¢â¬â¢ or in this case Ã¢â¬ËtimeÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ that it would be impossible to pull them out. In their case, the idea that they are firmly holding together and keeping alive, even after their own deaths, is that of difference because difference can mean many different things and it can be expressed in many different ways. Therefore, it is difference that they created by pushing above and beyond the limits which they were told they had and it is difference they are still inspiring, even to this day, for others to achieve because of the changes and after-effects their being different left behind. How much and how many people each of them inspired to achieve this difference cannot be counted and neither could however many of them achieved the difference they were trying to achieve. Yet there is no need to count because the beauty of a flower is not shown in how many petals it holds but in the flower itself, and the beauty of inspiration is not shown by how many people have been inspired but by inspiration itself. The fact that they have been kept alive for so long after their deaths and that people are still being inspired by their achievements gives them both an irrevocable and undying importance and beauty. Depending on who has been inspired by which of the two, some people will think one better than the other but, nonetheless, neither of them will ever surpass the other because if such a task were attempted than it would go on without end. 1Ã¢â¬ GiottoÃ¢â¬ , staff. fcps. net, Fayette Co. ,04/29/2009, 10/27/2010, http://staff. fcps. et/aaford/art/giotto. htm 2Ã¢â¬ Giotto di BondoneÃ¢â¬ , WebMuseum, Nicolas Pioch, July 27,2002; 10/27/2010, http://ibiblio. org/wm/paint/auth/giotto/ 3Ã¢â¬ Comparing GiottoÃ¢â¬â¢s and CimabueÃ¢â¬â¢s Madonna EnthronedÃ¢â¬ , Helium, Thomas Plazibat, 2002-2010, 10/27/2010, http://www. helium. com/items/1897085_giotto_and_cimabue_the_differences 4L. Wolf, Martin, Dictionary of the Arts,(New York,1951) Pg. 216 5Ã¢â¬ Giotto di BondoneÃ¢â¬ , WebMuse um 6Ã¢â¬ Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬ , staff. fcps. net, Fayette Co. , 4/29/2003, 10/28/2010, http://staff. fcps. net/aaford/art/picasso. tm 7Ã¢â¬ Blue PeriodÃ¢â¬ , the Artchive, 10/28/2010, http://www. artchive. com/artchive/P/picasso_blue. html 8Ã¢â¬ Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬ , the Artchive, 10/28/2010, http://www. artchive. com/artchive/P/picasso. html 9Ã¢â¬ Rose PeriodÃ¢â¬ , the Artchive, 10/28/2010, http://www. artchive. com/artchive/P/picasso_rose. html 10Ã¢â¬ Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬ , the Artchive, 10/28/2010 11Ã¢â¬ Beginnings of CubismÃ¢â¬ , the Artchive, 10/28/2010, http://www. artchive. com/artchive/P/picasso_protocubism. html 12Brownes, Alan; Modern European Art, (Thomas and Hudson, London, England, 1972)Pg. 105-107 13Ibid, Pg. 117 4Ã¢â¬ Analytical CubismÃ¢â¬ , theArtchive, 11/4/2010, http://www. artchive. com/artchive/P/picasso_analyticalcubism. html 15Ã¢â¬ Synthetic CubismÃ¢â¬ , theArtchive, 11/4/2010, http://www. artchive. com/artchive/P/picasso_syntheticcubism . html 16Ã¢â¬ Between the WarsÃ¢â¬ , theArtchive, 11/4/2010, http://www. artchive. com/artchive/P/picasso_betweenwars. html 17Ã¢â¬ Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬ , the Artchive, 11/4/2010 18Ã¢â¬ Giotto(b. 1267, Vespignano, d. 1337, Firenze)Ã¢â¬ , ORACLE*ThinkQuest, 11/5/2010, http://library. thinkquest. org/15962/data/giotto. html 19Ã¢â¬ Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬ , the Artchive, 11/4/2010
Sunday, November 24, 2019
10 CCOT Essay Topics on Chemistry Research Has your professor tasked you with writing a CCOT Essay on Chemistry Research? Not sure where to begin? If you are reading this guide, your troubles are over! We have helped hundreds to thousands of students write excellent CCOT essays and this guide will help you get started too. For any particular subject/topic, we introduce three major guides that contain almost everything about the particular topic you want to write on, plus how itÃ¢â¬â¢s written, and the basics and methods of writing it. This has been proven to be very useful and had helped many students produce stellar assignments. We hope you will benefit the same way, once youÃ¢â¬â¢re done reading and following all three of our guides. In this first guide, 10 facts for a CCOT essay on chemistry research, you are introduced to 10 credible facts on Chemistry Research, so that you have the context and information you need to write a CCOT essay on your own. In our second guide, 20 topics for a CCOT essay on chemistry research, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve compiled 20 topics relevant to chemistry research, so you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have to bother thinking about what topics to write on. The topic suggestions will certainly help you start writing instantaneously. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve also included a sample essay based on one of the 20 topics so that you can see how a CCOT essay is written on Chemistry Research. Finally, in our last and third guide, how to write a CCOT essay on chemistry research, we explain what a CCOT essay is at its core, how itÃ¢â¬â¢s written and the formats as well as methods used in it. This will go a long way to help you write an exemplary essay, leaving your professors awestruck. Here are the 10 Facts on Chemistry Research: The bonding of hydrogen is one of the most important aspects of biochemistry and psychiatry that help study chemical events and how molecules interact with each other. This results in behaviors that are highly observable. Here is why this is considered very important. Hydrogen bonding is crucially important for our body and nervous system. It gives way to the study of biochemical neuro translation. Hydrogen bonding form a dipole-dipole moment since they are highly electronegative Ã¢â¬â they have partially positive and partially negative charges. In order to have proper analysis or research on a specific chemical you have to do a load of specifics processes. You have to do some sampling, which may result in sampling errors that need to be corrected. Naming the sampling is also necessary in order to know what is what. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to prepare your samples for analysis. After the preparation, the analysis takes place. Signals are recorded and evaluated. These signals are then processed accordingly. The result of the analysis is then evaluated to see the correctness, exactness and reproducibility. After the evaluation, the analysis is checked for plausibility. If plausible, itÃ¢â¬â¢s certified by the rightful authorities. In the end, the research or analysis is filed in a journal. There are two types of methods for quantitative analysis. First - atomic spectroscopy is used for heavy metals that are found in soil, waste or water. Second - gas chromatography is used for solvents present in soil, water, air or waste water. The definition of analytical chemistry is not universal and there seems to be disagreement regarding it. It states Ã¢â¬Å"the analysis of chemicals to describe their property and characterizing their composition through qualitative and quantitative measurements is known as Analytical ChemistryÃ¢â¬ . However, the real description of analytical chemistry is something else. Many renowned chemists donÃ¢â¬â¢t consider analytical chemistry to be a branch of chemistry. In fact, they consider it an application of chemical knowledge. The craft of analytical chemistry is often misinterpreted as chemical analysis; however, both are different and play uniquely different roles. Analytical chemistry is responsible for the development of procedures and methods, improvising them and establishing old methods into new types of samples Ã¢â¬â which can be used to measure chemical phenomena. In order words, analytical chemistry is used to enhance studies and research that revolve around chemistry itself. There are a plethora of answers to the question, Ã¢â¬Å"What is the perspective of analytical chemistry?Ã¢â¬ However, this can be easily described in a five-step process. First, identify the problem and then define what it is. Create an experimental procedure to find the solution. Conduct the experiment and gather necessary data needed for evaluation. Analyze the data obtained from the experiment. Once the solution has been found, propose it. The bonding capacity of hydrogen is highly electronegative which helps create a strong electrical attraction, allowing various molecules, peptides and amino acids to get glued together. Neuropeptides have revolutionized psychiatric research in the past few years. The peptides are actually formed through a process known as Ã¢â¬Å"dehydration syntheticsÃ¢â¬ , where hydrogen separates itself from oxygen; i.e. separation of H2O. There are three constructs of neuropeptides which lay the foundation of the theory of neuropeptides: Peptides are chemical signals in the endocrine system that includes the nervous system of the peripheral. The general principle is that neuroscience is actually the necro secretion of peptides. The last construct is that these neuropeptides are responsive to the nervous system. Neuropeptides are the most diversified and complex class of signaling molecules that are triggered through psychological processes in the body and nervous system. One of the most important polypeptides is the Cyclase Activating Polypeptide. Blocking of this peptide results in the symptoms of depression, anxiety and distress. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re sure you found these facts interesting. These will substantially help you write an excellent CCOT essay. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s move on to our next guide, 20 topics for a CCOT essay on chemistry research, where you are provided with 20 relevant topics along with a sample essay to help you start writing without any hitches. Be sure to follow up with our final guide, how to write a CCOT essay on chemistry research, which tells you exactly how a CCOT essay is written, along with some tips to make it strikingly awesome. References: Ruben Rafayelyan, (2016) Neuropeptides, Depression and Biochemistry UC Irvine Department of Social Scienceshttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/270274708_Chemistry_research_paper Prof. Dr. Manfred Sietz and Dr. Andreas Sonnenberg Ã¢â¬â Short introduction intoAnalytical Chemistry, FH Lippe und HÃ ¶xter, University of Applied Science. https://www.hs-owl.de/fb8/fileadmin/download_verzeichnis/chemie/Analytical_Chemistry.pdf Prof. Clemens F Kaminski, (2013) Part I Chemical Engineering Section 2 (ex-ET) ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY CFK/PJB http://six.cheng.cam.ac.uk/wiki/images/0/01/AChem_Notes.pdf Liu, H., Dasgupta, P. K. (1996). Analytical chemistry in a drop. Solvent extraction in a microdrop. Analytical Chemistry, 68(11), 1817-1821. Booksh, K. S., Kowalski, B. R. (1994). Theory of analytical chemistry. Analytical Chemistry, 66(15), 782A-791A. Backes, C., Sedaghat-Hamedani, F., Frese, K., Hart, M., Ludwig, N., Meder, B., Keller, A. (2016). Bias in high-throughput analysis of miRNAs and implications for biomarker studies. Analytical chemistry, 88(4), 2088-2095. Armstrong, D. W. (2016). Enhanced Performance Separations: Smaller, Faster, More Complex Samples. Analytical chemistry.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Marketing module 1 Case Study - Essay Example This paper will be directed towards describing the target markets and market positioning strategies of two companies having products and services that are similar and belong to the same industry classification. In this respect I have chosen to compare and contrast Wal-Mart and K-Mart, two of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most well-known discount stores and indeed Fortune 500 companies worthy of global recognition. Interestingly both of these companies have been in operation for more than 40 years and have seen a lot of ups and downs in the corporate landscape. The Wal-Mart chain is the brainchild of Sam Walton who worked at J.C PenneyÃ¢â¬â¢s before opening up his own store in Arkansas in 1962. Due to his outstanding success, the company quickly expanded to 24 stores across the state before going public in 1969. Today it owns and operates over 8500 stores in 15 countries under the Wal-Mart logo as well as other names (Frank, 2006). On the other hand, K-Mart was formed back in 1899 by Sebastian S . Kresge, who as a travelling salesman met and was inspired by Frank Woolworth, owner of the original discount store concept business that bears his name. K-Mart has also been reconstituted and changed its logo after coming out of bankruptcy proceedings in 2002. The company is slowly reconsolidating its position in the USA and worldwide. Big Kmart, K-wash, K-Cafe and Kmart Supercenter stores are concepts similar to Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club, Walmart market, Marketside, Express and other initiatives. Comparison of Target Markets and Positioning Strategies Coming to the concept of target markets and market positioning strategies, we see that Wal-Mart had previously adopted a one-size fits all approach and sought to attract all groups of customers by offering slightly lower prices and volume discounts. This is also reflected by its slogan for 19 years which ran as: Ã¢â¬ËAlways lower prices, alwaysÃ¢â¬â¢. But lately the company has evolved a new business strategy that acti vely practices market segmentation. Its segmented groups may be stated as African-Americans, Hispanics, affluent empty nesters, rural residents and suburbanites (Walmart website, 2011). Based upon current research, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest three customer group segments are Brand Aspirationals, value-price shoppers and price-sensitive affluents. Meanwhile the company has also reconstituted its logo and slogan which reads: Ã¢â¬â¢Saving people money so that they can live better lives.Ã¢â¬â¢ As compared to this, K-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s has not yet done the customer segmentation approach. It is still busy reconsolidating and experimenting with changes after the 2005 purchase of Sears. Its businesses in Australia and New Zealand operate under entirely separate management. While the names of some stores have been retained, others have been sold to the Wesfarmers group (K-Mart website, 2011). Creating a New Target Market and Consumer Perceptions Creating a new target market may be easy or d ifficult, depending on the nature of the product or service, the ease of introducing a new product line that does something a little different or is offered to complement something that the existing products are already offering. I would imagine that K-Mart and Wal-Mart would do well to offer a line of exclusive and specialty products as cars or business suits that are made by the worldÃ¢â¬â¢
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Philosophy of science - Essay Example Kuhn considers paradigm as an important scientific tool that supports the continuation of a particular research. According to him, paradigm is a structure that contains the widely accepted views about phenomena. It has various roles in normal science. One of the roles of paradigm is the ability to determine what a researcher should study or research (Kuhn 43). This is role one of the guiding principles of paradigm as explained by the philosopher. This means that paradigm defines the existing problems while helping one find solutions to the problem. Knowing about the existing problems helps one to know what to study. The role is different from PopperÃ¢â¬â¢s falsification which holds that a research should dictate a paradigm because in normal science, the objective of the study is defined by paradigm. Kuhn claims that if one doubts the truth of the existing theories, it would be difficult for him to conduct any research. For instance, if a scientist is to research about a problem rel ated to atoms. She or she would be guided by the basic atomic paradigm such as the mass of the atom to solve the problem. If the researcher would doubt the existing theories about the mass of an atom, it would be difficult to provide the background of the problem. However, since a paradigm is already established, one does not have to focus on verifying the assumptions of the study as they are widely accepted. The other role of paradigm is that it guides a researcher on the types of research questions that should be used in a study.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Notion Of Houses - Essay Example As an initial matter, the concept upon which I place the greatest value is education. Without an education, without knowledge and experience, I am what my father refers to as an empty house. Education, as my personal value, is not intended to be defined too narrowly; quite the contrary, I envision education as encompassing facts and experiences. It is learning how to socialize with different kinds of people as well as learning about facts. It is as much about learning about my limitations, whether physical or emotional, as well as learning about philosophies and the hard sciences. Curiosity is one of my motivations and a desire to live my life purposefully is another. We learn every day if we are aware of the opportunities, and in this way, education is something which permeates our lives. I can't think of a greater value to be passionate about.Related to my choice of education as my greatest value is my continuing passion to learn in different settings. To be sure, most people assoc iate education with formal educational settings. They think of desks, and classrooms, and exams. This is certainly one type of learning setting but is hardly the only set of which I am passionate about. My passion is to visit lakes and ponds, to examine artifacts and relics in museums, and to meet people both young and old. Each experience furnishes the house to which my father alluded, making it more beautiful and complete, and I view broad experiences as a passion to be pursued and indulged in with passion.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Description of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a standardized questionnaire designed to bring forth a wide variety of self-descriptions scored to give a quantitative dimension of an individuals level of emotional adjustment and approach toward test taking. The MMPI has been known as the leading personality inventory, most psychologists who conduct assessments as part of their clinical and consulting practice utilize this test. The widespread use of this test is accredited to several features ranging from its straightforwardness in scoring and administration, a straightforward response format that is essential for research design, a large item pool, many useful purposes and functions, and many practically established correlates. Psychologists make diagnostic and treatment decisions, through MMPI, it has been employed in inpatient and outpatient mental health facilities. It has been used by psychologists in clinical setting to evaluate the existence of psychological components in physical issues and to aid in predicting responses to a variety of therapy and treatment. Starke R. Hathaway and J. Charnley McKinley developed the MMPI in 1939 at the university of Minnesota. It was developed initially because of their vision of an instrument that could assist in evaluating patients during routine psychiatric case workups and could precisely determine the severity of their disorders. Hathaway believed the MMPI might aid researchers in assessing the usefulness of new treatment interventions by allowing methodical matching and evaluation of the participants. The MMPI was constructed using the criterion keying method also known as the empirical method of inventory construction. (Archer, 1997) The criterion keying method is utilized by testing with two or more groups of participants. One group serves as the criterion group, this group has evidence of the defining trait, diagnosis or characteristic that test is intended to evaluate, and the other group/groups serve as a comparison group, where there is no evidence of the characteristics or diagnosis under evaluation. Responses of the criterion and comparison group are compared, and items are then selected for inventory membership that empirically demonstrate significant differences in response frequency. (Archer, 1997) Hathaway and McKinley began their construction of the MMPI by creating an extensive item pool from which various scales could be constructed, the item pool consisted of a variety of statements from different sources, ranging from previously established scales of personal and social attitudes, clinical reports, case histories, psychiatric interviewing manuals and personal clinical experience. (Groth-Marnat, 1997) the result of extensive exclusion and amendment were 504 statements, these statements were balanced between positive and negative wording, and were developed to tap into a broad area of an individuals life. The 504 items were divided into twenty-five content areas. These included items related to general medical and neurological symptoms, the clinical scales ranged from hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria psychopathic deviate, paranoia, schizophrenia, etc to scales to social introversion etc. An additional 55 items thought to be related to masculinity-femininity were later added, and 9 items were subsequently deleted to achieve the final pool of 550 items. (Nichols, 2001) The format of the inventory was first person declarative statements, composed of basic phrasing based on contemporary word-frequency tables. The responses were limited to true, false or cannot say. (Nichols, 2001) The population consisted of normals(Nichols) who were selected to contrast with the pathological criterion groups (N=724) ranging from the age of 16 to 65 referred also as the Minnesota normals(Groth-Marnat, 1997), the sample was closely representative of a typical group of individuals from the Minnesota population, as indicated through the 1930 census. The scales were cross-validated by selecting a different group of normals and contrasting their responses with a new group of clinical patients; so that the items and scales would be valid for differential analysis in clinical setting. Hathaway and McKinley were interested in the fact that participants amend the impression they made on the test due to different test taking positions and opinions; hence the created several scales that could identify the different types and magnitudes of various test-taking attitudes which could invalidate the clinical scales. They developed four scales: the cannot say scale (?) was simply the total number of unanswered statements; If amount of questions was high it would reduce the overall validity of the MMPI profile. The lie scale (L) was developed to indicates the examinees efforts to place himself/herself morally and culturally under an favorable light a create an favorable impression. The infrequency scale (F) is used to assess the inclination of individuals to claim highly unusual attitudes, opinions, and behaviors that are classified as an component of psychopathology. The correction scale (k) assesses the examinees degree of psychological defensiveness (Groth-Marnat, 1997) t his is considered the most important validity scale. Practical evaluation of the MMPI The MMPI can be administered to an individual who is above the age of 16, with an average sixth-grade reading level. As mentioned above an individual above the age of 16 is permitted to take the test, but adolescent norms needs to be addresses. Standard instruction are given prior to the test, test instruction are given regarding the nature and purpose of the test, and what it is designed to evaluate, and how the results will be used. Administering of the MMPI can be viewed as a relatively easy undertaking, and hence many practitioners tend to overlook vital elements that influence the participants test-taking attitude and would eventually lead to invalid results. Prior to the administration, scoring, and interpretation of results, the administrator should highlight the importance and consequences of the test in a serious manner to the test-taker, often the administrators do not high light the importance of the test to decrease performance anxiety. A clear elucidation oh how the resu lts are significant and how it is going to be used will increase cooperation. Interpretation of data is an important and vital part of the MMPI; the collected is useful in supplying information about attitudes toward assessment, cooperation, cognitive/ideation, mood and affect, conflict areas, coping styles, diagnostic consideration and treatment recommendation The interpretation of the scores was based on the principle that a participant attains a raw score on each scale based on the number of items that they identified in the scored direction. The raw scores are then later converted to T scores, with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. The interpretation of the test can be done in three ways, first using the validity indicators, this is the first step in interpreting any personality profile; which is establishing the validity to assure the subjects cooperativeness in taking the test. MMPI has been established as having the most comprehensive validity indicators (Goldstein, 2000) among all established personality inventories and assessments. Secondly interpreting results involve Configural Interpretation (code type), this is due to the intercorrelations amongst scales and also the overlap amongst the similarities of clinical syndromes, evidence has been attained indicating several MMPI scales tend to increase together, therefore, interpretations of scales should depend on the elevations of other scales in the personality profile. Third and final approach to interpreting the results is content bases interpretation. The principal followed in the content interpretation relies on the assumption that the participant when answering test items is reacting and responding with honesty and sincerity to the MMPI. Accordingly the content of the MMPI may represent a vital source of information that cannot be accessible through empirical test-interpretation. Technical evaluation The reliability analysis of the MMPI indicate that its has moderate levels of temporal stability and internal consistencyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ all MMPI scales are quite reliable, with values that range from a low of .71 to a high of .84. (Groth-Marnat, 1997) many studies have reported inconsistency in some of the scales; many argue that the scales of the MMPI show instability in the test scores that are to be anticipated. This is mainly due to the psychiatric population since the effects of treatment or stabilization in a temporary crisis situation is likely to be reflected in a patients test performance. (Groth-Marnat, 1997) To cross-validate the scales, participants of the criterion and the control groups were administered the items. To qualify as cross-validated, a scale had to distinguish the criterion group from the control group at a 0.5 alpha level significance. Another issue that has surface about the MMPI is about the construction of the scales. The intercorrelations between most of the scales are relatively high, which is primarily due to the extensive amount of item overlap. Occasionally, the same item will be concurrently used for the scoring of a few other scales, and hence most of the scales have a relatively high percentage of items similar to other scales The problems associated with the reliability and scale construction have led to hurdles and speculation on the validity of the MMPI. MMPI has been commended about its strict psychometric properties that present complications, but it has been adequately compensated by its intensive validity studies Development of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A Problems concerning the MMPI were mainly about the growing issues related to scale construction, insufficiency of a standardized sample and problems with the item pool. The original norm had inadequate representation of the minorities and hence was redundant in making conclusions about and with current test-takers. In 1982, the university of Minnesota instigated a major research in effort to revise, update, improve, and restandardize the MMPI. Its main goals were to delete the redundant, questionable, and problematic items. Maintain the efficacy of existing validity; clinical and different widely utilized scales of the test. Develop a representative sample, Develop new, revised norms for the MMPI and the development of new scales. The MMPI was updated and restandardized and the new version was released in 1989; 46 years after the original MMPI was published. The revised MMPI-2 differs from the older MMPI in various ways; the T scores that the subject obtains are usually not as deviant as those from the previous version. In addition, the T scores designed to produce the same range and distribution right through the established clinical scales. The practical result is that T scores of 65 or greater are considered to be in clinical scale range; also the percentile distributions are consistent throughout the different type of scales. The test booklet itself contains 567 items, but the pattern has been changed so that the previously established scales (the 10 clinical and 3 validity scales) can be derived from the first 370 items. The proceeding 197 items provide different content, supplementary scales. A number of new and revised scales have been included along with new, revised, adjunctive procedures of test vali dity, separate measure of masculinity and femininity and 15 other additional content scales measuring unambiguous and specific personality traits and factors. (Groth-Marnat, 1997) The MMPI-2 shares a lot of psychometric property with the original MMPI. The median split-half reliability coefficients for the MMPI and the MMPI-2 are in the .70s with some coefficients as high as .96 but others much lower. Median of the test-retest coefficients range from a low .50 to .90; when one observes the basic higher-order factor structure; the MMPI and the MMPI-2 are extremely reliable, with coefficients running as high as .90. The MMPI and the MMPI have been criticized due to the item overlap and this issue was not confronted in the revision of the original MMPI, as the goal was to retain all the original scales. Another criticism associated with the MMPI and MMPI-2 is the imbalance in the way the items are keyed(Kaplan Saccuzzo, 2009). the MMPI and the MMPI-2 strongly emphasize the importance of taking the participants demographics into account when interpreting profiles. The MMPI-A was published for the sole interest of creating an instrument for adolescents, with a normative sample depicting the broad teenage population. This occurred because MMPI produced different scale elevations for adolescence than for adults. This resulted in the construction of different sets of recommended norms for use with adolescent populations. To counter argue that the MMPI is too long, especially for adolescent, the MMPI-A contains 478 items, there by shortening the administration. (Groth-Marnat, 1997) Significant features of the MMPI include descriptive and diagnostic information about the personality profiles, flexible administration and scoring. The most important feature of the MMPI is its validity scales; and it has been translated and published into over 20 languages The most needed amendment of the MMPI apparently has been a major accomplishment; the majority of psychologist, researchers, and clinicians have supported its utility and practical value resulting in its rising popularity among them. The MMPI serves to assist in distinguishing the normal from abnormal groups; specifically the test was designed to help aid in diagnosis and evaluation of major psychiatric or psychological disorders.